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As far as we can see, the universe is packed with galaxies.

It has been observed that some clusters of galaxies are expanding relative to their local center.

To account for this glaring inconsistency with the simplest form of the big bang theory, it has been radically suggested that matter is created at the center of galaxies.

But this idea is inconsistent with the conservation of mass and energy that is observed in the universe. However, there is a solution.

I propose that galaxies are the source of matter, which results from converting free energy into matter. At a point of localized turbulence in energy-saturated space, eddies grow into a ‘tornado’.

At its center, when eddies are atom-sized, free energy can be coalesed into atoms – primarily, if not exclusively, hydrogen. Non-atomic matter is also formed – but having no charge, these particles are invisible.

This ‘foton tornado’ forms a tube that ejects matter that has been converted from free energy. Stars form from the matter that is ejected at either end of the tube. Eventually, due to the spin of this tube over time, we can see a spiraled disc of matter that we call a galaxy.

The faster the end-over-end spinning of this tube, the tighter the spiral of the galaxy. The larger and stronger the turbulence tube, the longer the bar feature at the center of the galaxy.

The matter-converting turbulence, has a limited time of action, and varies in strength. Some galaxies may stop producing matter when they are quite small, others may grow to a massive size.